Fig. 1 Potential therapeutic uses of CpG ODNs. 
CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (or CpG ODN) are short single-stranded synthetic DNA molecules containing unmethylated CpG motifs derived from bacterial DNA. CpG ODNs can directly stimulate B-lymphocytes, dendritic and NK cells, resulting in an increase in innate immunity and antibody-dependant cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). Forthermore, it also can indirectly modulate T-cell responses, through the release of cytokines (IL-12 and IFN gamma), to induce a preferential shift to the Th1 (helper) phenotype resulting in enhanced CD8+ cellular cytotoxicity. Preclinical and clinical trials indicate that CpG ODNs can boost the immunogenicity of vaccines targeting infectious diseases and cancer, including acting as vaccine adjuvants to improve antigen-presenting cell function and promoting the induction of an antigen-specific adaptive immune response, preventing allergy by encouraging the development of T helper 1 (TH1)-type immune responses and so on. The characteristics of CpG ODN makes it is possible to better service to the research of vaccine and the immunotherapy of cancer.
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- Klinman DM. (2004). Immunotherapeutic uses of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. Nature Reviews Immunology, 4(4), 249.
- Bode C, et al. (2011). CpG DNA as a vaccine adjuvant. Expert review of vaccines, 10(4), 499-511.